Battle of Harlem Heights Plaque at Columbia University
The Battle of Harlem Heights was a minor engagement that took place during the early phases of the Revolutionary War. Following their rapid defeat and panicked retreat from Long Island, this successful rearguard action helped slow the British advance and offered a critical morale boost to American troops. On September 16, 1776, General George Washington led the outnumbered Americans against the advancing British forces under General Sir William Howe. The battle was the first American victory of the New York Campaign. The victory was only temporary, as Washington's troops were still vastly outnumbered and forced to continue their retreat. The battle also resulted in the death of one of Washington's most competent officers, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton. Despite these setbacks, the battle served as a boon to American morale and allowed the bulk of Washington's army to evade capture so they could continue their war for independence.
Paulus Hook Park and the Battle of Paulus Hook
This park was part of the original plan for the city and appears in the 1804 Mangin Map of Paulus Hook. Today it is home to a large obelisk that commemorates the Battle of Paulus Hook. After achieving victory at Stony Point, Major Henry Lee convinced General George Washington to attack Paulus Hook. The Battle of Paulus Hook took place during the American Revolution on August 19, 1779, and ended in an American victory. The American victories at Stony Point and Paulus Hook played a role in changing Sir Henry Clinton's plans in the New York region as he began to look towards the southern campaign the following year. The battle resulted in 2 killed, three wounded, and seven captured on the American side, while the British endured 30 killed and injured, and 159 captured.
Princeton Battle Monument
Located in the Princeton Battlefield State Park in Princeton, New Jersey, the Princeton Battle Monument commemorates the January 3, 1777, Battle of Princeton that took place during the American Revolutionary War. The monument shows General George Washington representing his defeat over the British forces during this battle. The monument also commemorates the death of General Hugh Mercer, a close friend of Washington’s who lost his life as a result of lethal wounds received during the Battle of Princeton.
Trenton Battle Monument
Dedicated in 1893, this monument commemorates the American victory in the Battle of Trenton on December 26, 1776. The battle served as critical turning point in the war as the British had routed the Continental army in previous engagements and many of the Continental enlistments were scheduled to end at the beginning of the new year. General George Washington was desperate for a victory that would encourage the troops to sign on again and to bring in new enlistments to keep the army alive. For this reason, on Christmas night General Washington decided to attack a Hessian encampment across the Delaware River in Trenton. Using small boats, Washington and his army crossed the nearly frozen Delaware River during the night. The plucky American force was able to completely surprise the experienced Hessian mercenaries, providing a critical victory that prevented soldiers and political leaders alike to continue supporting the revolution.
Brandywine Battlefield Park
A National Historic Landmark, Brandywine Battlefield Park is the site of the largest land battle of the Revolutionary War. The battle took place for eleven hours on September 11, 1777-the longest single-day battle in the war. In the days leading up to the battle Howe's men had advanced through the Chesapeake and landed at Elk, Maryland with his sight set upon the new nation's capital of Philadelphia. General George Washington anticipated this move and was determined to stop Howe from reaching Philadelphia. However, the British anticipated Washington's plan and were able to overwhelm his flank and force the Americans from the field. Fortunately for the Americans, the valiant fight at Brandywine left the British army unable to pursue Washington's army and the British settled for Philadelphia as their prize. Despite the loss of their capital, the American army was still in the field and Washington and his fellow officers and men continued the war.
The 52 acres that have been preserved are the location where Washington's Continental Army camped and prepared for the British offensive. The park offers many programs and tours, including Washington's Headquarters, a tour through the park museum, and a film about the battle and its significance within the larger war. The park also offers driving tours that highlight how the battle unfolded.
Battle of Brandywine
The Battle of Brandywine, which took place on September 11, 1777, was a major engagement during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army, under General George Washington, attempted to stop the British advance on Philadelphia. The Continental Congress was stationed there, which made it a prime target and the British thought they could end the war by capturing it. The British were marching from the Chesapeake under the command of General William Howe. Washington's main force was stationed at Chad's Forde halfway to Philadelphia. As the battle unfolded, the American's were flanked by Howe which broke the stalemate that appeared be taking place. The British won the battle and the road to Philadelphia was wide open. However, it was not a total victory as the majority of Washington's forces were able to escape.
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park
The Guilford Courthouse National Military Park commemorates and memorializes the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, which took place on the site in March of 1781. Twenty-eight monuments within the park honor Revolutionary soldiers, statesmen, heroes, and heroines. The National Park Service now maintains the battlefield, preserving it as a national military park. Visitors can tour the site and visit the educational center which provides interpretive literature on the battle, figures involves, and repercussions of that day.
Nathanael Greene Monument, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park
Dedicated on July 3, 1915, this 27-foott tall monument honors Nathanael Green, a Major General in the American Revolution. The monument consists of two statues, one with Nathanael Greene on a stallion and a second statue of Athena with a shield and laurels. The monument originally contained cannons on either side, however, those have been removed.
Battle of Hobkirk Hill Historical Marker
The Battle of Hobkirk Hill was fought on April 25, 1781. This battle was fought during the American Revolution, with Major General Nathanael Greene and Lord Rawdon commanding the Americans and the British, respectively. Although outnumbered 1,551 to 900, Rawdon led the British to victory, contributing to the death of Captain William Beatty and the wounding of Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Ford. The Americans' defeated resulted in 19 killed, 113 wounded, 89 captured, and 50 missing, while the British suffered 39 killed, 210 wounded, and 12 missing.
Battle of Eutaw Springs
The battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina was the last major American Revolution engagement in South Carolina. The battle occurred on September 8, 1781 when British troops under Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart met American troops under General Nathanael Greene on the battlefield. During the battle, the American forces decimated the British ranks which forced the British to retreat to Charleston. The battle happened one month before Commander Cornwallis surrendered to the American army at Yorktown, VA. Today, the battleground is maintained by the Santee-Cooper Authority as a park. Major John Marjoribanks, a well-known British leader from the battle, is buried in a cemetery at the park, which is accessible to visitors.
Siege of Charleston Historical Marker
Three years after a failed attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina in 1776, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton began making plans to invade the Southern colonies. In February of 1780, Clinton managed to land a small diversionary force in Georgia before sailing with the bulk of his forces to Edisto Inlet, approximately 30 miles south of Charleston. With the help of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton's attack on Brigadier General Isaac Huger's men on April 14, Clinton's forces had trapped the Americans. On April 21, Major General Benjamin Lincoln met with Clinton and offered to evacuate the city under the agreement that his men were allowed to depart. Clinton refused Lincoln's request and began firing artillery until Lincoln's surrender on May 11.
Battlefield Park and the Siege of Savannah
This memorial park consists of reconstructed earthworks and numerous signs and programs that allow visitors to experience the history of the American Revolution in the South. On December 29, 1778, British forces, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell, captured Savannah as part of a strategy to regain control of Georgia with the support of the loyalists who lived there. The following year in 1779, French and American forces combined to attempt to take back the city in a battle called the Siege of Savannah, which is also known as the Second Battle of Savannah. Due to poor planning, miscommunication, and a lack of patience, the siege failed, leaving Savannah in British control until July of 1782. An interesting feature of the battle was the contingent of 500 men from what was once a French colony and now the country of Haiti. Some of these soldiers were men of color and some were former slaves. The contingent was one of the largest foreign forces to participate in the war.