The Lexington Battle Green
Properly referred to as Lexington Common, the Lexington Battle Green is the historical site where the first shots of the American Revolutionary War were fired on April 19, 1775. The battleground now operates as a historical, public park attracting locals and tourists alike. The park is also home to a handful of statues and monuments such as the statue of Captain John Parker, leader of the Lexington militia, a bronze plaque marking the location of Old Belfry, and the Revolutionary Monument, marking the grave of seven of the eight militiamen killed in the battle.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American War for Independence. Major John Pitcairn was attempting to seize rebel arms at Concord, but was blocked by American Militiamen at Lexington. After a brief standoff, fire was exchanged between the groups, resulting in a small skirmish. The Rebels broke, and the British advanced to Concord, where they were defeated by militia. This first exchange of fire signaled the start of a Revolution.
Battle of Harlem Heights Plaque at Columbia University
The Battle of Harlem Heights was a minor engagement that took place during the early phases of the Revolutionary War. Following their rapid defeat and panicked retreat from Long Island, this successful rearguard action helped slow the British advance and offered a critical morale boost to American troops. On September 16, 1776, General George Washington led the outnumbered Americans against the advancing British forces under General Sir William Howe. The battle was the first American victory of the New York Campaign. The victory was only temporary, as Washington's troops were still vastly outnumbered and forced to continue their retreat. The battle also resulted in the death of one of Washington's most competent officers, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton. Despite these setbacks, the battle served as a boon to American morale and allowed the bulk of Washington's army to evade capture so they could continue their war for independence.
Battle of Paulus Hook
After achieving victory at Stony Point, Major Henry Lee convinced General George Washington to attack Paulus Hook. The Battle of Paulus Hook took place during the American Revolution on August 19, 1779, and ended in an American victory. The American victories at Stony Point and Paulus Hook played a role in changing Sir Henry Clinton's plans in the New York region as he began to look towards the southern campaign the following year. The battle resulted in 2 killed, 3 wounded, and 7 captured on the American side, while the British endured 30 killed and injured, and 159 captured.
Princeton Battle Monument
Located in the Princeton Battlefield State Park in Princeton, New Jersey, the Princeton Battle Monument commemorates the January 3, 1777, Battle of Princeton that took place during the American Revolutionary War. The monument shows General George Washington representing his defeat over the British forces during this battle. The monument also commemorates the death of General Hugh Mercer, a close friend of Washington’s who lost his life as a result of lethal wounds received during the Battle of Princeton.
Trenton Battle Monument
The Trenton Battle Monument, completed in 1893, commemorates one of the most pivotal moments in American history. On December 26, 1777, George Washington led his force of 6,000 troops across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania to conduct a surprise attack on British and Hessian (German) troops. The Hessian general dismissed the warnings of attack and as a result the British suffered dozens of dead and wounded (the rest were became prisoners) while not on American soldier was killed; it was a total victory for the Continental Army. The monument stands at the exact location where Washington's canon were located, which prevented a British escape. It is 150 feet tall and atop rests a 13 foot bronze stature of George Washington with his arm extended pointing the direction the canon faced (down Warren Street). The monument is hallow and there is an elevator inside enabling visitors to go to the top platform to view the surrounding landscape (it is not clear if this is still possible today). The monument is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Brandywine Battlefield Park
The Battle of Brandywine is the site of THE largest land battle of the Revolutionary War. The battle took place on September 11, 1777. British General Howe had advanced through the Chesapeake, and landed at Elk, MD with his sites set upon the new nation's capital of Philadelphia. General George Washington anticipated this move, and was determined to stop Howe from reaching Philadelphia. This battle resulted in defeat for the Continentals. The Brandywine Battlefield park experience is featured in the Museums of the American Revolution. The 52 acres that the park sits upon is the site of Continental encampment under General George Washington. The park offers many programs and tours, including Washington's Headquarters, a tour through the museum, and a film about the battle itself. The park also offers driving tours that highlight how the battle unfolded.
Battle of Brandywine
The Battle of Brandywine, which took place on September 11, 1777, was a major engagement during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army, under General George Washington, attempted to stop the British advance on Philadelphia. The Continental Congress was stationed there, which made it a prime target and the British thought they could end the war by capturing it. The British were marching from the Chesapeake under the command of General William Howe. Washington's main force was stationed at Chad's Forde halfway to Philadelphia. As the battle unfolded, the American's were flanked by Howe which broke the stalemate that appeared be taking place. The British won the battle and the road to Philadelphia was wide open. However, it was not a total victory as the majority of Washington's forces were able to escape.
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park
The Guilford Courthouse National Military Park commemorates and memorializes the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, which took place on the site in March of 1781. Twenty-eight monuments within the park honor Revolutionary soldiers, statesmen, heroes, and heroines. The National Park Service now maintains the battlefield, preserving it as a national military park. Visitors can tour the site and visit the educational center which provides interpretive literature on the battle, figures involves, and repercussions of that day.
Nathanael Greene Monument, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park
Dedicated on July 3, 1915, this 27-foott tall monument honors Nathanael Green, a Major General in the American Revolution. The monument consists of two statues, one with Nathanael Greene on a stallion and a second statue of Athena with a shield and laurels. The monument originally contained cannons on either side, however, those have been removed.
Battle of Hobkirk Hill
The Battle of Hobkirk Hill was fought on April 25, 1781. This battle was fought during the American Revolution, with Major General Nathanael Greene and Lord Rawdon commanding the Americans and the British, respectively. Although outnumbered 1,551 to 900, Rawdon led the British to victory, contributing to the death of Captain William Beatty and the wounding of Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Ford. The Americans' defeated resulted in 19 killed, 113 wounded, 89 captured, and 50 missing, while the British suffered 39 killed, 210 wounded, and 12 missing.
Battle of Eutaw Springs
The battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina was the last major American Revolution engagement in South Carolina. The battle occurred on September 8, 1781 when British troops under Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart met American troops under General Nathanael Greene on the battlefield. During the battle, the American forces decimated the British ranks which forced the British to retreat to Charleston. The battle happened one month before Commander Cornwallis surrendered to the American army at Yorktown, VA. Today, the battleground is maintained by the Santee-Cooper Authority as a park. Major John Marjoribanks, a well-known British leader from the battle, is buried in a cemetery at the park, which is accessible to visitors.
Siege of Charleston Historical Marker
Three years after a failed attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina in 1776, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton began making plans to invade the Southern colonies. In February of 1780, Clinton managed to land a small diversionary force in Georgia before sailing with the bulk of his forces to Edisto Inlet, approximately 30 miles south of Charleston. With the help of Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton's attack on Brigadier General Isaac Huger's men on April 14, Clinton's forces had trapped the Americans. On April 21, Major General Benjamin Lincoln met with Clinton and offered to evacuate the city under the agreement that his men were allowed to depart. Clinton refused Lincoln's request and began firing artillery until Lincoln's surrender on May 11.
Battlefield Park and the Siege of Savannah
This memorial park consists of reconstructed earthworks and numerous signs and programs that allow visitors to experience the history of the American Revolution in the South. On December 29, 1778, British forces, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell, captured Savannah as part of a strategy to regain control of Georgia with the support of the loyalists who lived there. The following year in 1779, French and American forces combined to attempt to take back the city in a battle called the Siege of Savannah, which is also known as the Second Battle of Savannah. Due to poor planning, miscommunication, and a lack of patience, the siege failed, leaving Savannah in British control until July of 1782. An interesting feature of the battle was the contingent of 500 men from what was once a French colony and now the country of Haiti. Some of these soldiers were men of color and some were former slaves. The contingent was one of the largest foreign forces to participate in the war.