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The Sam Rayburn Museum, located in Bonham,Texas, is one of the five divisions of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History. It is the creation of the man who served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives longer than any other person: Sam Taliaferro Rayburn (1882–1961). The centerpiece of the Sam Rayburn Museum is a replica of the formal office of the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Known affectionately as "Mr. Sam" by his friends and colleagues, Rayburn established the museum in 1957 as a tribute to the people of his cherished Fannin County.

Sam Rayburn served as congressman during the administrations of eight presidents and participated in the passage of most of the significant legislation of the first half of the twentieth century. He became chairman of the powerful Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce in 1931 and House majority leader in 1937. Rayburn, as well as Vice President John Nance Garner, played a critical role in passing much of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.

In 1941 Rayburn became Speaker of the House of Representatives, a position he held for sixteen years, longer than any other individual in U.S. history. Except for two brief periods when the Republican Party controlled the House (1947–1948 and 1953–1955), Rayburn continued to serve as Speaker until his death in 1961.