Battle of Ezra Church
The Battle of Ezra Church took place on July 28, 1864. The battle was part of the Atlanta Campaign in Sherman’s March to the Sea. The Confederate forces were led by General John Bell Hood and Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee and the Union forces by General William T. Sherman and Major General Oliver Howard.
Backstory and Context
Before the battle, Major General Oliver Howard’s forces formed lines near a small Methodist church called Ezra Church, just west of Atlanta. When the Union Army starts to move south towards Lick Skillet Rd they begin encountering resistance from Confederate forces. The Union forces then begin encountering bombardment from Confederate cannons as General Sherman approaches. Howard then ordered his troops to erect barricades from rails, logs, church pews. The Confederates continued to fire on the Union forces from the surrounding forest forcing many of them to lie behind improvised parapets made from rail and logs.
Confederate forces charge three times on the Union’s right flank but were repulsed each time. After repeated failures, the Confederate forces move against Harrow and Wood’s brigade of the Union forces. This saps the Confederates of needed forces, so Confederate Brigadier General Gibson sent in more troops to support the failing forces against Harrow’s forces but are driven back. The Confederates are forced to withdraw their attack on Harrow and Wood’s brigades.
Lieutenant General Lee attempts to force the Union forces out into the open by forcing them from their fortified positions. Twice the Confederates assault fails and are forced to withdraw. The next attack of Confederate forces against Union entrenchments saw heavy fire where the Union forces fired back “shot for shot, and then some.”
Orders then come down from General Hood that Lee is to “hold the enemy, but not to do more fighting than necessary, unless you get a decided advantage.” The Confederate forces at this time gave up trying to win the battle and instead settled on stalling Union forces. The Confederate forces under Lee were forced to withdraw completely and concede the battle to the Union forces. The Union forces sustained 642 casualties while the Confederate sustained a much larger 3,000 casualties.
Castrel, Albert. Decision In The West, The Atlanta Campaign of 1864. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1992
Ecelbarger, Gary L. Slaughter at the Chapel: The Battle of Ezra Church 1864. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.
Hess, Earl. The Battle of Ezra Church and the struggle for Atlanta. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2015.
McMurry, Richard. Atlanta 1864: last chance for the Confederacy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.