Battle of Ezra Church
Engraving of the battle by Theodore R. Davis for Harper's Weekly
Backstory and Context
Before the battle, Major General Oliver Howard’s forces formed lines near a small Methodist church called Ezra Church, just west of Atlanta. When the Union Army started to move south towards Lick Skillet Rd they began encountering resistance from Confederate forces. The Union forces then began encountering bombardment from Confederate cannons as General Sherman approached. Howard then ordered his troops to erect barricades from rails, logs, and church pews. The Confederates continued to fire on the Union forces from the surrounding forest which forced many of them to lie behind improvised parapets made from rail and logs.
Confederate forces charged three times on the Union’s right flank but were repulsed each time. After repeated failures, the Confederate forces moved against Harrow and Wood’s brigade of the Union forces. This action sapped the Confederates of needed forces, so Confederate Brigadier General Gibson sent in more troops to support the failing forces against Harrow’s forces but are driven back. The Confederates were forced to withdraw their attack on Harrow and Wood’s brigades.
Lieutenant General Lee attempted to force the Union forces out into the open by forcing them from their fortified positions. Twice the Confederates assault failed and are forced to withdraw. The next attack Confederate forces made against Union entrenchments saw heavy fire where the Union forces fired back “shot for shot, and then some.”
Orders then handed down from General Hood that Lee was to “hold the enemy, but not to do more fighting than necessary, unless you get a decided advantage.” The Confederate forces at this time gave up trying to win the battle and instead settled on stalling Union forces. The Confederate forces under Lee were forced to withdraw completely and concede the battle to the Union forces. The Union forces sustained 642 casualties while the Confederate sustained a much larger 3,000 casualties.
Castrel, Albert. Decision In The West, The Atlanta Campaign of 1864. Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1992
Ecelbarger, Gary L. Slaughter at the Chapel: The Battle of Ezra Church 1864. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.
Hess, Earl. The Battle of Ezra Church and the struggle for Atlanta. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2015.
McMurry, Richard. Atlanta 1864: last chance for the Confederacy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.