Creek War of 1813-1814: A Virtual Heritage Tour
This heritage tour chronologically explores the major sites and engagements of the Creek War of 1813-1814. This conflict was rooted in the encroachment of white American settlers onto Creek Indian lands in the early 19th century and the influence they exerted among the tribe. Inspired by the religious, nativist movement of Tecumseh, a faction known as the “Red Sticks” (named for Creek red-painted war clubs) emerged hoping to stymie American influence and settlement among the Creeks. The Red Sticks first clashed with the more peaceable villages of their own tribe. By 1813, however, the United States was drawn into the conflict after clashes with Red Sticks at Burnt Corn, Fort Mims, and Fort Sinquefield. Over the next year, the United States and Red Sticks clashed on three fronts, as American forces invaded Red Stick territory (roughly central Alabama) from Tennessee, Georgia, and southern Mississippi Territory. These three disjointed campaigns produced a number of violent clashes, and for a time the Red Sticks held their own. Eventually, however, General Andrew Jackson decisively defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in March 1814. At the subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Creek Nation was forced to cede over 20 million acres of land to the United States.